The trick to encrypting the password is to make use of ssh's local port forwarding capability. It works by creating a sort of proxy on the local host that listens to some high-numbered port. Any traffic sent to that port is encrypted, and forwarded to the configured remote address and port. (Note: the prior instructions' flaw was that the local port forwarding request was sent to localhost, rather than to the remote server, which effectively set up the encrypted channel between localhost and itself). Here's how to set up a local port forward:
ssh -Llocal-port:remote-addr:remote-port user@host
This says to listen on port local-port on localhost, and to send that encrypted traffic to host's remote-addr at port remote-port. To use this trick to secure an FTP session (to be specific, the control channel, through which passwords are transmitted, will be encrypted; the data channel will not), it would look like:
ssh -f -L3000:ftpserver:21 ftpserver 'exec sleep 10' && ftp localhost 3000
Note that the choice of local-port is arbitrary. Using port 3000 is not a requirement. This trick also requires that the ftp client use passive mode data transfers, so make sure to use a client that understands FTP passive mode.
Remember that only the control connection is encrypted, not the data connection: any data you transfer (eg directory listings, files uploaded or downloaded) are still sent "in the clear". Your password (and the other FTP commands sent by the client) is not.